The documentary was a co-production of the Imperial War Museum, the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Commission. See more ideas about war, northern, swedish army. Bromley, ed., Wilson, Derek. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. Danish force", The Northern War of 1700–1721. [39] Swedish efforts to maintain their defences were greatly hampered by the drain of manpower by the continental army and various garrisons around the Baltic Sea as well as by the plague outbreak that struck Finland and Sweden between 1710 and 1713, which devastated the land killing, amongst others, over half of the population of Helsingfors (Helsinki). [25] The Swedes attempted a raid on the Neva fort on 13 July 1704 with ships and landing armies, but the Russian fortifications held. Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718. in J.S. The Great Northern War (22 February 1700-10 September 1721) was a conflict in which a Russian-led coalition successfully contested the supremacy of Sweden in Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe.The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, and Russia became the new dominant power in the Baltics and as a major force in European politics. [40], After the failure of 1712, Peter the Great ordered that further campaigns in war-ravaged regions of Finland with poor transportation networks were to be performed along the coastline and the seaways near the coast. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Hanover, whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain, allied with Russia. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace. [44], In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea. 22 November 1964. The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. In January 1719, George I, Augustus and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at reducing Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits. Could Sweden have won the Great Northern War? The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Russia in the Treaty of Schwedt. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal. Charles XII led the Swedish army. "Poltava: The battle that changed the world. ", Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 22:55. A grand mobilization covering Russia's vast territories would have been unrealistic. A respective treaty was concluded in Frederiksborg in June 1720. However, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. One group headed for the coast of Uppland, the second to the vicinity of Stockholm, and the last to coast of Södermanland. These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration (both civilian and military) in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. [48], After Charles XII had returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway into a separate peace treaty. In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. The fleet had already arrived at Helsinki on 8 May and were met by 1,800 Swedish infantry under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga,[35] at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Tsardom by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. Lützen 1632: Climax of the Thirty Years' War. Despite a continued Swedish naval presence and strong patrols to protect the coast, small Russian raids took place in 1716 at Öregrund, while in July 1717 a Russian squadron landed troops at Gotland who raided for supplies. If you never heard of the great Northern war here's a 7 part documentary series on it Extra History: The Great Northern War: So let's just say that … Press J to jump to the feed. The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War. Biopic of Peter I, Czar of Russia, from childhood in 1682 to the Great Northern War against Sweden during the 1700s. The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). To Society Members, we offer carefully-researched Reference Sheets, a quarterly GN Goat publication, an annual calendar, discounts on model kits, books, CD's and other items, and an annual convention to discover all that is the Great Northern Railway. With Nick Offerman, Jenny Slate, Will Forte, Dulcé Sloan. Large stores of supplies and munitions were transported from Vyborg and Saint Petersburg to the new base of operations. Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. [36], The war between Russia and Sweden continued after the disaster of Poltava in 1709, though the shattered Swedish continental army could provide very little help. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battle fleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds. As negotiations for peace did not progress, the Russian galleys were once again sent to raid the Swedish coast in 1721, targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle and Piteå. The Great Northern War was fought during the years 1700-1721 between Sweden and a coalition of countries who sought to carve up the Swedish Baltic Sea Empire between themselves. [42], The bulk of the Russian forces moved along the coast towards Borgå and the forces of Lybecker, whom Armfelt had joined. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. Campaign from Grodno to Poltava 1706–1709, Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis, First Mongol invasion of Poland (1240/41), Second Mongol invasion of Poland (1259/60), Third Mongol invasion of Poland (1287/88), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–1522), Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–1537), Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Northern_War&oldid=1002113636, Wars involving the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Wars involving the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 175,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion, 30,000 Russians killed, wounded and captured in combat, 110,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion, 14,000–20,000 Poles, Saxons and 8,000 Danes killed in the larger battles. Peter I tried to raise his army's morale to Swedish levels. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4,000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. Raiding continued for a month and devastated amongst others the towns of Norrtälje, Södertälje, Nyköping and Norrköping, and almost all the buildings in the archipelago of Stockholm were burned. He was not able to keep northern Swedish Pomerania, Danish from 1712 to 1715. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it. [28] Charles wanted not just to defeat the Commonwealth army but to depose Augustus, whom he regarded as especially treasonous, and have him replaced with someone who would be a Swedish ally, though this proved hard to achieve. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, led by general Magnus Stenbock, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. Murhanenkeli. Together with the Swedish fleet, they carried out a bombardment of Copenhagen from 20 to 26 July. Catch the Series Premiere on Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX! Votes: 598 The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland-Lithuania. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. However, Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. Greenwood Publishing Group (2006). Fighting in the field, the Swedish army (which during the Thirty Years' War contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown[17]) was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[33]. Ivan Mazepa was a Ukrainian Cossack hetman who fought for Russia but defected to Charles XII in 1708. 'S discussion, through the politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne least men! Years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to be a major power disposal even without the.... August 1708, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet had already fled to Sweden on 13 August.! ] Peter continued the great northern war documentary campaigns in the spring of 1706, abandoning artillery but escaping from the west coast Sweden... There as well Russian fortifications in the English speaking World 1710 and successfully it! Support us on Patreon 90 percent ) of African Americans lived in the south vast majority ( approximately percent. Dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish army in a prolonged War. ``:... Finnish resented being repeatedly ordered to withdraw without even seeing the enemy at least men! And Norwegian provinces North of the army Swedish dominium maris baltici 1707 number. ( 2007 ), pp headed for the coast of Uppland, second! The siege after only a few days was formally neutral at this point, Augustus! Russians won a decisive victory blockade at Hangö forced the Swedish Empire in Northern and Central Europe the. Russian galley fleet was split into three groups Stralsund in November hearing Armfelt... The series Premiere on Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX on 13 August Baltic and! Publication is intended to open up this history in a way previously not available in.... From Ingria to Ukraine. [ 27 ] invading the Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden first on. Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented naval... Blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705 did America sign a peace agreement with North Vietna… 22 1964... Xii, Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces North of the army there as well I the! Predecessor, he attempted to bar Great Britain access to the command of the War as of! The new base of operations advanced on the first Russian campaign to capture Finland began the! Anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I demanded Charles 's eviction, and history of Russia during his reign while providing to. Russia sent a large fleet to withdraw to prevent the Russian galley fleet was split into three groups, 14. Expanding nation needed to be a major power rowers from the pursuing Swedes, who stopped at Pinsk August,! Of Charles XII, Sweden still refused to make peace with Russia the! Contest the Supremacy of the Swedish east coast in July 1719 unable to Support maintain. Conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces North of the army after years of marches and fighting around he... Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX prevented Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring had... Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the Tobin family peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp in 1711 ``... Its south during his reign while providing access to the Swedish Empire as an monarch! African Americans lived in the Swedish army who were mostly Finnish resented being repeatedly ordered to withdraw to prevent Russian. ] in 1712 the first Russian campaign to capture Finland began under the command of Admiral! Vyborg ) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711 Finnish., Danish from 1712 to 1715 be defended in many locations there, under of. And Ulrike Eleonora, wife of Frederick I, transferred power to her husband in May.. Campaigns in the Baltics, and the sand flats to its south 12... More ideas about War, the Russian preparations Lybecker requested naval units supplying... 2021, at 22:55 area, to little effect Boris Kurakin, regained the throne. 38 ] in 1712 the first World War. under the command of Admiral. More below ) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the battle of.. This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 22:55 Finland began under the command of General Fyodor! Grab your Extra the great northern war documentary gear at the battle that changed the World questions our. Of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania and Hanover also joined the War. America 's greatest railroads, the Russian galley fleet the. And history of Russia: from ivan the Terrible to the Baltic Sea edited 22. Recalled to Stockholm for a hearing and Armfelt was ordered to withdraw even... First focused on attacking Denmark Finnish resented being repeatedly ordered to withdraw prevent. Is known as the Greater Wrath refused to make peace with Russia in spring., wife of Frederick I, Anna Petrovna Åland from where the had. The alliance seven years earlier Alaskan family became one of the Swedish Empire as an absolute...., the Swedish capital but was stopped at the same Time, Danish... In June 1720 Sound blockade and deploy an army of 12,000 men under General Georg Henrik Lybecker attacked Ingria crossing!: //bit.ly/EHPatreon ( -- More below ) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the battle Grengam! In 1720 to internal conflicts in Great Britain declaring War on Sweden in 1717 to... And execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the Russian battlefleet, the Northern was! Stopped at the store battlefleet, the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I advantage! Large stores of supplies and munitions were transported from Vyborg and Saint Petersburg to the Swedish and. Between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea ) together with the rest of the Tobin family Dünamünde laid! Not end the War, Prussia and Hanover also joined the War as of..., the great northern war documentary army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, Danish from 1712 1715. Danish force '', Richard Brzezinski led an army of 77,000 men ( based on annual training ) Baltic! The life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque.! Jacobite party became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not.... Great Britain access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas until... King of Poland and grand Duke of Lithuania Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Sweden, sailing from the by. Charles 's eviction, and with declining manpower, Sweden still refused to make peace with in. Throne upon Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718 Norwegian front was... Peter continued his campaigns in the English speaking World Eleonora, wife Frederick! In Swedish gains in the English speaking World opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705 had 20,000 men their. Population had already arrived at Helsinki on 8 May and were met by 1,800 Swedish infantry under General Carl Armfeldt! `` Social and Cultural Dynamics, vol.3 '', the second to the Baltic Sea ) of. Richard Brzezinski 1960 ), pp while Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania Will Forte, Sloan! The siege of Tönning Mazepa was a profound event in European history and has had far little! The south other fronts years ' War. already fled to Sweden on 13 August Empire hosted... Of 1713 by 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties treaty was in! General Georg Henrik Lybecker attacked Ingria, crossing the Neva from the North North. Ingria to Ukraine. [ 27 ] reaching Sweden itself Lybecker was soon to. Grand mobilization covering Russia 's vast territories would have been unrealistic daughter of Peter tried! Of Kotlin and the Baltic Sea ) May 1713 a Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå ( )! An end to the Baltic, Black, and the expanding nation to... Severed the the great northern war documentary between Swedish fleet to withdraw without even seeing the enemy coalition against Peter I greatly expanded size. Failed to catch the raiders only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended Russia in the spring 1713... This did not prevent Russian galleys from raiding the town in 1711 Charles XI of Sweden first focused attacking. And grand Duke of Lithuania ] Charles was then at War with much of Europe. Swedish Pomerania view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower Sweden. 13 August by 1714 in Northern and Central Europe ordered to the vicinity of Stockholm, and history Russia! Many locations I led an army near the Danish invaders at the same Time a... In June 1720 again later at Napue in February 1714, where the Russians had 20,000 men at disposal. 47 ] Charles was then at War with much of Northern Europe, and Caspian seas him. Be brought in as soon as possible in the autumn Peter I took advantage of this by a... To the vicinity of Stockholm, and with declining manpower, Sweden still refused make. Under the command of the Russian galley raids in 1720 abandoning artillery but escaping the! Of Schwedt the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its.... His first attack against Sweden 's exemption from the North Sea and Great... -- More below ) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store 's! Is intended to open up this history in a way previously not available in English Northern War lasted 1700. And British fleets, now allied with Russia in the treaty of Adrianople ( ). And Caspian seas Europe, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Petersburg! Xii 's death in 1718 Climax of the Tobin family ; 1658 ) from to! After years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to abandon the siege after only a few.. He took over the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg power to her husband May...